The Pensions Regulator (TPR) warned the trustee boards of 400 schemes to conduct a data review within six months.
These schemes are believed to have failed to review their data in the last three years.
The trustees will be required to report to TPR what proportion of their members they hold accurate common and scheme-specific data for.
Those that fail to do so may face action, which could include an improvement notice about their inadequate internal controls.
Failure to comply with the notice carries a fine of up to £5,000 for an individual or up to £50,000 in any other case.
A total of 1,200 schemes are being contacted to remind them to carry out data reviews of both common and scheme-specific data every year. Trustees and scheme managers are responsible for ensuring these reviews are completed.
The move comes as TPR tightens its regulatory grip on standards of governance and administration in the hope of delivering better outcomes for pension savers.
In addition to record-keeping, communications will be sent to more than 1,000 schemes this year about other issues, such as dividend payments to shareholders and the length of recovery plans.
David Fairs, TPR’s executive director of regulatory policy, analysis and advice, said: “Accurate record-keeping is vital to good governance and administration – without it trustees cannot ensure that savers will get accurate information or receive the pensions they are entitled to.
“Requiring trustees to carry out reviews will force them to look closely at their data and administration and take appropriate action to bring their systems up to scratch.”
TPR says that without accurate records, schemes cannot process financial transactions promptly and accurately, communicate with their members, check employers are correctly paying contributions, have confidence in the accuracy of scheme valuations or assess whether savers are getting value for money.
The regulator says accurate record-keeping “will also be vital for the pensions dashboards so that savers can see exactly what pension savings they have and consider whether they need to put more away for later life”.